Welcome to the Chicken Wire

I’ve added a new tab:  the Chicken Wire.  It contains a link which takes you  to a private Wiki that I have set up for  questions, discussions and information. Anyone who joins can edit, post, and upload files and photos.

I started this because there is a lot of good information and a lot of experienced backyard flock owners in Alaska and elsewhere, and, as I have found, I don’t have the time to post as much as I would like to.  I get a lot of questions from people about chickens, and often, the answers I give them come from other people that have  more experience or are cleverer in solving problems with backyard flocks than me.  So, to share the wealth, the Chicken Wire was hatched.

Because it is private, it does require signing up and creating a username and password (and then of course, remembering same).  However, the benefits to having a private wiki are obvious; it will save us all from having to wade through countless postings about viagra, and that certain individual in a far away country that needs just a couple hundred dollars to make it back home.

Hope you will join the collaborative chicken chat – and despite the cute alliteration, it’s a forum that is open to all things poultry.

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Breath of Fresh Air

Airing the hen house on a warm January morning, Fairbanks

Airing the hen house on a warm January morning, Fairbanks

Thanks to the Lower 48 taking on our Polar Vortex- winter here in Fairbanks has been perfect: mostly warm, with plenty of snow for skiing and other winter recreating.  It’s been good for chickens too.  Maybe not for outside frolicking as mine don’t really care for the snow, and they haven’t reached that level of coop-fever that drives them out into the snowy yard.  That will happen in early March, but it has more to do with sun angle and warmth than with them being thoroughly fed up with being inside.

But even if your chickens won’t venture outside right now, mild temperatures are great for regular henhouse airings.    If yours is anything like mine, by January there is a definite funk built up inside as a result of a number of birds living, eating and yes, doing what chickens do, pooping in a small space.  When it’s 30 below, that funk  sort of crystallizes into  an inert, non-smelly frost in the far corners and near the floor of the henhouse.  But with temperatures regularly above zero, and in many cases flirting with the high 20s and 30s…I have  moisture running down the walls, and my deep litter method has to be changed a lot more frequently as the straw and manure mixture starts cooking.

While warm winter weather can produce these not-so-good interior conditions, even with a vent (I will sometimes spend a little electricity when I don’t need to and turn on the heat lamp for a few hours to help dry out the henhouse), it also allows you to air out your henhouse and give your chickens some welcome fresh air.

If you are conscientious about keeping your small coop door free of litter and ice (I am not) you may be able to regularly open the hen door for additional air circulation.  I used to do this, but quickly tired of the regular chore of chipping and banging the door open.  A fellow flock owner, who is much more experienced in keeping all sorts of poultry (chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys) here in Fairbanks than I am  passed on to me her tip: she opens her main door and hangs an old quilt over the door on warm days.  Of course, “warm” is a personal definition for both flock owner and the involved poultry, but generally, if it is 20 degrees or warmer, this would be a good thing to do for your coop and its inhabitants.

Another option, the lazy-person’s (which is the one I use), is simply to partially open the door for a couple of hours. While opening the small coop door does give additional fresh air, it doesn’t allow for as much air circulation and much-needed air exchange as having the larger door open for a period of time.

If you are a first-time flock owner in a northern climate, do begin opening your little coop door on warm sunny winter days in late winter – at some point your chickens will decide the sun is at the right angle and they will begin spending some portion of their days outside.  Be sure to sweep/shovel an area clear of snow as they are not too keen on being in it.

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In the past couple of weeks, my chicken house looks like several chickens have spontaneously combusted… it’s a cloud of feathers.   But every chicken is, luckily, accounted for.  It’s just my Easter-egger going through a late-season molt.  Though I know a change in the photoperiod can trigger molt –  and most definitely our near-complete absence of light in the winter  qualifies  – I am always bemused when a chicken starts going nude in the middle of the coldest time to do so.  It reminds me of when I used to run dogs, and some of my team would  blow their coats in January. You just stand there among the fur piles (or in this case, feathers) and think: “Really? What are you thinking?”

Despite the coop being a  chilly 40 degrees at this time of year, Cinnamon doesn’t seem to be bothered by it; she’s had no problems with frost bite, eats heartily and is now growing out  a new wardrobe. It  is my (admittedly) unscientific observation that Americanas and Easter-eggers seem to go through a more thorough all-over body molt than do some other breeds.  I don’t often have Americanas in my flock – most of my birds are Rocks, Wynadottes, Orpingtons, Cochins  and Langshans.  They seem to take their molting less seriously, molting more in rotating patches than undergoing a near total  de-feathering.

A neighbor's Easter Egger in full molt

A neighbor’s Easter Egger in full molt

I often get questions from poultry newbies experiencing the first molts of their new flock.  A full-on molt (such as the one pictured at the right) often alarms  a new flock owner – who may assume that  that their chickens have some sort of parasite or disease that is causing such severe feather loss.    While parasites can be a cause of patchy feather loss,  there are two things to keep in mind when confronted with birds that  seemingly overnight, have transformed from fluffy handsome henny-penny chickens to bald, goose-pimpled, scrawny things.

First, do inspect your birds.  If parasites like lice or mites are to blame, you will be able to see them scurrying around on the skin, and/or your chickens will be picking and scratching.  Second, if you haven’t been touring coops or been around other flocks, and your birds haven’t been troubled with external parasites, it is not very likely that your previously healthy and pest-free flock will suddenly become infested, especially in an Alaskan winter.

New feathers in various growth stages, Langshan hen

New feathers in various growth stages, Langshan hen

Keep an eye out for new feather emergence to seal the deal that it is a molt they are experiencing. New feather growth first looks like the chicken’s skin has been peppered with buckshot, but very quickly you will be able to see the feather shafts, at which point your chicken will look a bit porcupine-esque.    Usually you will see feathers in all stages of development, as modeled by Wah the Langshan.

Posted in Egg-layers, Flock, Health, Hens, Information, Uncategorized, Winter | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Survey says….

….99.9999999999% of chickens in Alaska hate winter.

Gandalf the Rooster registered his disgust today at approximately 1:30 PM when he burst out of the sealed lower coop door and gave a thoroughly peeved-off crow. I was alerted to the chicken escape (into potentially frostbite-inducing temperatures) by the fact that his crow no longer sounded as muffled as it normally does in winter when he is sounding off from inside the hen house.

Sure enough, when I went outside to investigate I found Gandalf and his number one lady hen tentatively making their way down the ramp.

A chicken with the initiative to open  the little coop door is a first for me.  It’s not exactly rocket science, and any sled dog worth its biscuit in a similar situation would have figured out how to tap the door open, as it is not secured with latches or hasps.  But in 10 years of chicken habitation of this particular house, not one chicken has ever tried its luck at effecting its escape –   not even the late Stew Paul, a rooster who refused confinement to the detriment of his comb and wattles.

Number One Lady Hen quickly tired of the chill and retreated back inside, but Gandalf hung around outside a bit longer…letting off steam and giving anyone who would listen an earful over the indignities of being sequestered in a small, rather smelly box-like building for weeks and months on end.

Survey results also show that Alaskan chickens, like most Alaskans, would rather spend the winter in Hawaii.

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Getting the Flock Ready for Winter

A clean coop is a good way to start the winter

A clean coop is a good way to start the winter

Yup.  It has happened again.  Summer screamed by, and all of the things I meant to do relative to the flock (relocate the manure pile, enlarge the pen, add a new gate) didn’t get done.  Now it is a mad scramble to get all of the pre-winter preparations done:    top off  the wood pile, pick low-bush, stock the freezer with moose and ducks (if you are a hunting sort) winterize the car, and clean up the yard.

If you decided last spring to maintain a small flock of laying hens, then your fall chores will include preparing your coop for winter.  Now is the perfect time to do some henhouse cleaning, not to white-glove standards but enough to keep your birds healthy through the long winter ahead.  It’s also a good idea to  set up all of your  lights, water heaters and heat lamps ahead of when the light disappears and the mercury drops well below freezing and stays there.

The following is my fall checklist for my coop, which is home to a dozen birds.  It usually takes me two hours to complete.  When I clean inside the henhouse, I wear a dust mask (the inexpensive white ones sold in hardware stores)  to avoid inhaling the dust from litter and droppings.

Why a dust mask is essential!

Why a dust mask is essential!

1)    Muck out the outside pen to extend its life and mitigate smells next spring thaw.  If you do not free-range your chickens, your flock has been spending most of its outdoor time in this enclosure, so droppings, food remains and used litter build up. I generally use a pitchfork to take off several inches, focusing on the areas beneath perches. This is also rich compost material (let it age at least two years before application). Every few years (this is one of them), I truck in a load of sand and spread it over the pen to a depth of several inches.  You can also use pea gravel, but sand is cheaper; it also compacts well and I like it because it keeps the old muck from migrating back to the top.

2)    Clean all roosts and ramps with a wire brush.  A metal spackle knife is useful to remove   dried-on chicken manure. If you are particularly energetic and own a pressure washer, you can remove roosts and ramps and give them a serious cleaning with relatively little effort.  Note bene: it is particularly important to do this in a way so as not to be in the path of the pressure washer spray, and to make sure you have put the items well away from anything you dont want covered in wet chicken poop.  Do not pressure wash inside your coop – it will take forever to dry.

3)    Wash down the inside of the henhouse with a dilute bleach solution (1 capful to 1 gallon water; for chickens,  more bleach is NOT better and may be harmful).  This both disinfects and removes accumulated dust.

4)    Remove all litter from henhouse, especially in nest boxes, and sweep it out thoroughly. Replace with clean litter.  Make sure all litter – whether straw or wood shavings – is dry when added to the henhouse.

5)    Move feeders  and waterers inside the henhouse. If you heat your henhouse solely with a heat lamp, it is advisable to use a thermostatically-controlled water heater under your chicken waterer  to ensure the water stays thawed even during extreme cold spells.

6)    Check heat lamp and bulb, make sure they are operative, and clean both the fixture and bulb of accumulated dust.

7)    Set up an additional light source (a 40 or 60-watt bulb is sufficient), with timer, and begin giving chickens two to three hours of light in the evenings, depending on the number  and orientation of  windows in your henhouse.   The amount of artificial light you give your chickens will steadily increase (up to 14 hours) as our natural daylight decreases.

8)     Finally, leave your small coop door open until your chickens no longer go outside. Then close it to conserve heat and to prevent chills.

If this is your first season with laying hens, expect some upheaval in flock dynamics as the weather cools and the chickens spend more time indoors. First-year pullets born in spring generally start laying about October or November.  However, the onset of egg-laying may be delayed due to the rapidly-declining temperatures and natural daylight here in Interior, as well as  the increased confinement.  Making sure your flock has at least 14 hours of light throughout the late fall and winter will help keep pullets laying well through an Alaskan winter.

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The New Roo on the Block



With the ending of the  state fair (where he took third – despite his very crooked toes), and his debut as a 4-H exhibit, Mr Roo,  Stew’s replacement, Gandalf, arrived.  Raised and handled by kids with a fondness for the Hobbit, Gandalf is mostly what his predecessor was not – even tempered and gentle.  A Wynadotte /Americana cross, he is a handsome fella with black iridescent tail feathers, and a lace wing saddle and neck feathers; he is also the perfect arctic chicken with his compact rose comb.

Gandalf arrived a couple of Saturdays ago, and made the hen flock his own with a minimum of fuss.  His crate sat for some time in the middle of the chicken yard with the birds at stalemate.  Neither the rooster nor the hens were going to make the first move, although Wah the Langshan, the most gregarious of the girls, did circle it at far remove.  Eventually Gandalf took matters in wing  and emerged to explore his new surroundings.  In his previous coop, he had been at the mercy of a much more aggressive rooster, as evidenced by his heavily scabbed comb.

Emerging from the crate

Emerging from the crate

So one can only image the relief and surge of excitement that he must have felt when he realized he had a flock of hens to call his own. The girls, on the other hand, weren’t so keen on the idea.  With Mrs. Dot, the dominant hen, running interference, the rest of the flock took to the coop – where they rocked the walls with their cackling.

Mrs. Dot allowed him entrance only after she delivered to him the fowl’s equivalent of a good boxing of the ears:  a reptilian flaring of neck feathers and  a series of chest butts.  Truly, as a Wynadotte with a nearly white front and black leg, back and tail plumage, who brooks no bad behavior from anybody, bird or otherwise,  Mrs Dot bears an unsettling resemblance to a crotchety old housekeeper in a third-rate Downton Abbey-esque potboiler.

With her role as the coop enforcer established, Gandalf was finally given room to explore the rest of his new home.  The hens – after clustering and cackling, and cackling and clustering, soon settled down to the new state of affairs.

And I quite happily returned to the enjoyment of hearing a rooster calling in my flock, without having to be on my guard for a sudden and unprovoked rooster attack.

The girls aren't so sure about the new guy...

The girls aren’t so sure about the new guy…

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The Mark of a Roo

This morning, as I was weeding the garden for chicken treats, I realized the main reason I keep laying hens is likely  more for the rooster crowing than even for the hens themselves;  some years ago I made peace with the fact that, not being much of an egg consumer, it’s definitely not for the eggs.    Today, for the first time in many years, my yard was silent.  There was no 4 AM crow to incorporate into my dreams, as so often happens in the summer, and no crow to greet me when I came out to feed the dogs and chickens.  Roo Paul was gone – taken away yesterday by the Rooster Remover, because yes, I am too chicken s**t to dispatch  problem birds myself.

I am a total  rooster booster.  But even as such, I  have limits.  Roo Paul crossed them a few weeks ago when suddenly and without warning he decided to establish a pecking order with  me.  Since I was wearing jeans, his  first two body slams merely resulted in him getting thoroughly whacked with the broom.  As Mr. Broom seemed to have reestablished the pecking order in my favor, I gave the matter no further thought (and had no further trouble) until the weather hit 90 and I started wearing shorts to do yard chores.

Two good punctures and a bruise, compliments of Roo Paul

Two good punctures and a bruise, compliments of Roo Paul

To the right is a visual of what happens when in fact the pecking order is still at issue within a rooster’s mind.  I had a bruise the size of a chicken body for a couple of weeks, not to mention two  fairly deep punctures on my calf; these were from his claws (talons?) not from his spurs  which, thankfully, had yet to grow out.  But it was the issue of those soon to be very long and very sharp spurs that was foremost in my mind as I mulled:  “Should he stay or should he go?”

Aggressive (or overly protective) roosters are a dilemma that can arise anytime one decides to have a mixed flock.  For flocks that are free-ranged a lot, or where there are no  small children or other visitors, a flock owner may want a protective rooster; it is hard to fault a bird for doing what it is genetically programmed to do: protect his hens.  In my case, while I was willing to deal with a certain amount of back talk from my rooster,  my chicken yard has a lot of visitors and alternate caretakers, including children.  Having a feisty rooster capable of puncturing legs was not an option.

Since I am admittedly a soft touch with all of my birds, I gave Roo Paul a month to clean up his act.  We had some negative reinforcement interactions consisting of a spray bottle (then a more powerful squirt gun), as well as the dreaded broom.  I found that if I distracted  appeased the rooster with treats  he would leave me alone.  But if I turned my back, he would frill his neck feathers and prepare to attack – most particularly if I wore shorts.

And it was that deviousness – his clear distinction between jeans and bare legs – that yesterday led me to summon the Rooster Remover  (a friend and fellow flock owner who is happy to take and consume  unwanted roosters).

So, Roo Paul is gone and I can move about freely again amongst my hens.  It’s never a decision I make easily but it is one I realize I will encounter from time to time if I want to have a rooster with my flock.

Some breeds are just more aggressive than others.  Roo Paul was a red-sex link: crossed with a Rhode Island Red.  The last rooster that I was forced to condemn (because it would stalk and nail me in the hen house when collecting eggs) was also smart, devious and hard-hitting, and….a Rhode Island Red. Maybe it is just been my bad luck with Rhode Island Reds, but for sure, I won’t ever take a rooster if it has even a whiff of Rhode Island Red in its breeding.

In about a month, I will be getting a new rooster – this one a cross of a Wynadotte and an Americana – both breeds that are generally calm, placid and not highly assertive.  In the meantime, while all of the females in the yard  are breathing a sigh of relief (the hens also experiencing a lot of pecking and harassment from Roo Paul), it’s eerily quiet.  Even though there is always the risk of a rooster passing the limit of “decent” behavior, for me their crowing is what makes a backyard flock a backyard flock…

(and apologies for the lack of regular postings: summer is time when we are often off contract from the University, as well as – it goes without saying – a time to be outdoors and not inside typing away on a computer)

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Really-  this is enough snow

While Roo Paul enjoys being King of the Snow Pile, he thinks it is really time for it to stop snowing in Fairbanks!

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New Page: Urban Chickens

In response to a lot of questions I receive about whether or not backyard flocks are allowed in the major urban areas of Alaska, I have added a page summarizing zoning regulating the keeping (or not) of backyard flocks in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau. This information can be found at Urban Chickens under the “Before you start” tab.

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Natal Attraction

Just-hatched chicks

Just-hatched chicks

Although I have always had a rooster, hatching chicks from   my own flock never struck me as a practicable  option, largely because my hens rarely go broody (just twice in twelve years) and going the incubator route just seemed  a bit too mechanical.

Maybe even a little Dr. Strangelove-ian, because, after all, the reason we even have to consider using incubators is because poultry breeders have bred out just about all of the traits that keep a chicken from being anything but a super egg-laying machine. In other words, all eggs, all the time. No time to sit on a nest and brood a clutch of eggs.

Thus to some extent, my studied indifference to using an incubator to replenish my flock was  in no small part a silent (and admittedly ineffectual) protest of this manipulation for commercial gain.  Irrational? Absolutely.

But not nearly as irrational as the reaction I had today when my friend emailed me that five of the 12 fertilized eggs I had given her to incubate had hatched. “That’s my Roo!” was the first thought that popped into my head, quickly followed by a peculiar sort of elation that the eggs had turned out to be viable, and that my little flock was, well, actually reproducing instead of just producing.

And this led me in turn to mull over once again what our cultural tendency to measure value through its rate of return on investment  costs us in the long run.   Flock reproduction really shouldn’t have to be a planned event, such as this one.  Not that long ago, backyard flocks reproduced willy nilly: there were eggs to eat, new chicks to replenish the flock, older hens and extra roosters to eat.  But somewhere along the line – from our grandparent’s time to now – the natural occurrence of flock self-sustainability has been eroded to a point of near-disappearance.

That this hatch is an orchestrated  event this spring, rather something which happens in its own course and with natural regularity (as it does in other parts of the world with less manipulated breeds) emphasizes this point.

Like all birds, chickens molt to replace their feathers, and sit on eggs to incubate, hatch and propagate their species. Because these biological phenomena remove a hen from egg production for the duration of the event, these are increasingly seen as highly undesirable traits in laying hens – especially broodiness, which can remove a hen from egg production for several months.

While some breeds are more likely to be broody, especially among heritage breeds, many of our most popular and hardy egg layers no longer have sufficient inclination to hatch their own. Thus, we have ended up with many chicken breeds  dependent upon human intervention for successful reproduction. This  is  a biological kluge that should make us nervous and cause us to question the wisdom of valuing layers only in terms of their maximum egg output.

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